by Zhou Enlai


Stage 4: Organization takes the theoretical foundations from the previous three stages and directs the use of the following concepts toward real-world organization: Organization, Mass Line, Democratic Centralism, and Criticism.

I. The Definition of a Leader

Any cadre may at some time have to take up the work of leadership, and very likely he is already doing such work. Therefore, the work of leadership concerns leading cadre at all levels, whether the lower, middle or upper.

Among the staff members at Hongyan and Zengjiayan there is only a difference in the kind of work each does, but no distinction is drawn between the leaders and the led, still less between cadres and non-cadres. Although some comrades working in Hongyan and Zengjiayan and in the office of New China Daily are not directly shouldering the responsibilities of leadership, they are in fact leaders.

II. The Stand a Leader Should Take

A leading cadre must proceed from the standpoint of the Party in everything he does. But this is only a general statement. More specifically, a leading cadre should have the following qualities:

III. The Leaders and the Leading Organizations

IV. What is Correct Leadership

I shall now elaborate on the three points Stalin once made:

a)   we must note tangible results of work rather than promises;

b)   we must not merely look at plans on paper, but inquire whether tasks are being performed conscientiously or only perfunctorily;

c)   we must pay attention to content rather than to form and examine whether a decision is really being correctly carried out or is being distorted;

d)   reviews should not only be conducted from top to bottom, but also from bottom to top;

e)   reviews should be systematic and regular; and

f)   leaders should personally participate in reviews.

As Stalin has said, leaders must maintain close ties with the masses, and the experience gained by both leaders and masses must be synthesized. Only thus can there be correct leadership.

V. The Tasks of Leaders

Comrade Mao Zedong says that the tasks of leaders consist in using cadres well and implementing policies. This is true. Breaking them down, I think, they are as follows:

a)   placing emphasis on important matters;

b)   sharpening political vigilance;

c)   raising their theoretical level;

d)   intensifying ideological struggle both inside and outside the Party; and

e)   actively publicizing the policies and achievements of the Party.

a)   organizational leadership should be raised to the level of political leadership; in other words, all kinds of work should be put on a principled basis and connected with political tasks;

b)   all organizational and day-to-day work should serve to guarantee the fulfilment of the Party's political tasks and the realization of its work plans;

c)   importance should be attached to the Party's day-to-day leadership, so that Party organizations stay close to the grass roots and their work becomes even more concrete;

d)   Party organizations and the masses must be mobilized to strive to surmount all difficulties; and

e)   we should combat all forms of opportunism (such as perfunctoriness, empty talk, arrogance, bureaucracy, formalism, and red-taped routinism), corruption, degeneration, etc.

a)   get close to the people, maintain contact with them, and to some extent become one with them;

b)   heed the voice of the people;

c)   learn from them; and

d)   educate them instead of tailing behind them.

VI. Leading the Masses and Befriending Them

VII. The Art of Leadership

According to the art of leadership as expounded by Lenin and Stalin, leaders should not run too far ahead of a movement, nor should they lag behind. Rather, they should grasp the key task and push the movement forward.

According to the art of leadership as expounded by Comrade Mao Zedong, they should take into account the overall situation, think in terms of the majority and work together with our allies.

VIII. Work Methods

IX. Work Style

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